The composition of the diets differed only in the grain type (and thus in the fibre content).
"Many previous studies have suggested benefits of whole grains and dietary fiber on chronic disease risk".
The authors describe the extra calorie loss as being tantamount to half hour brisk walking.
Although hunger and fullness were not statistically different between diets, results showed that participants who ate the diet with whole grains, which matched the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for fiber, lost almost an extra 100 calories per day than those on the refined grain diet which contained less fiber - equivalent to a brisk 30 min walk or enjoying an extra small cookie every day. Karl found men and women ages 40 to 65 and during the first two weeks of the study everyone ate the same type of food.
After two weeks, the participants were randomly assigned to eat a diet and that included either whole grains or refined grains.
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Although improvements were modest, the results showed that those who ate the whole grain diet had an increase in Lachnospira, the bacteria that produces short-chain fatty acids, and a decrease in the pro-inflammatory bacteria, Enterbacteriaceae.
Researchers measured the weight, metabolic rate, blood glucose, calories excreted, hunger and fullness.
The findings, released in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggest that eating whole grains is connected with an increase in calorie loss because it boosts metabolism and reduces the amount of calories that are retained during digestion.
While we've known for a while that eating whole grains is generally better for you than eating refined grains, this Tufts study provided all the food that the participants ate over the course of the six-week study. However the extra fecal energy losses were not due to the extra fiber itself but from the effect the fiber had on the digestibility of other food calories.
Proponents of eating whole grain foods, such as brown rice, oatmeal, and whole-wheat bread, as part of the daily diet now have a new reason to pat themselves on the back.
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This was caused by a higher resting metabolic rate and also lower absorption of calories in the digestive system, researchers said. Susan Roberts, a senior author on the study who is the director of the Energy Metabolism Laboratory at Tufts University, says that they incorporated whole grains into the study group's diets primarily with whole grain bread, whole grain cereals, and brown rice.
"[In] refined grains, most of that is stripped away", said Ashton, who was not involved in the study. This process eliminates dietary fiber, different B vitamins, and iron.
In the United Kingdom, the recommended amount of fibre to take in is 30 grams a day for an adult, although most people eat much less? an average of around 12 grams.
A food label issued by the Whole Grains Council may indicate the percentage of whole grains present in a product.
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