"I no longer have to call @ShuttleCDRKelly my identical twin brother anymore".
Changes like the longer telomeres disappeared after 48 hours of being back on Earth.
"After returning to Earth, Scott started the process of readapting to Earth's gravity". At least this was the result of NASA analyzes, after which the scientists announced that their DNA had been changed by 7%. Some of these mutations, found only after spaceflight, are thought to be caused by the stresses of space travel.
"Such actions can trigger the assembly of new molecules, like a fat or protein, cellular degradation; and can turn genes on and off, which change cellular function".
While 93 per cent of Kelly's DNA returned to normal once he was back on Earth, several hundred "space genes" remained.
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However, some changes persisted for six months. Scott developed significantly longer telomeres in space. However, the remaining 7 percent point to possible longer-term changes in genes related to his immune system, DNA fix, bone formation networks, hypoxia, and hypercapnia.
"Oftentimes, when the body encounters something foreign, an immune response is activated", Christopher Mason, a Twins Study researcher and associate professor at Weill Cornell Medical College, told Business Insider.
One-Year Mission & Twins Study The two astronauts began their year in space on March 27, 2015, and returned to Earth on March 1, 2016. The space agency now says space may have nothing to do with the telomere changes as compared with his brother - it may be due to Scott Kelly's "rigorous exercise regime and restricted caloric intake while on the space station".
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Last year, NASA published its first round of results from the Twins Study at the Investigator's Workshop for Human Research Program - and the findings this year largely corroborated them.
A year in space can change your DNA, according to a study by Nasa.
Reacting to the news of the study results this week, Kelly expressed amazement at his body's changes ― and also used the opportunity to poke fun at his brother. A more comprehensive report will be released later this year.
Scott's one-year trip to ISS - which was six months longer than any other astronaut - is a stepping stone to a three-year mission to Mars, NASA says.
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